The following are the reading/spelling characteristics of dyslexia:
- Difficulty reading words in isolation;
- Difficulty accurately decoding unfamiliar words;
- Difficulty with oral reading (slow, inaccurate, or labored);
- Difficulty spelling.
The reading/spelling characteristics are most often associated with the following:
- Segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in words (phonemic awareness);
- Learning the names of letters and their associated sounds;
- Holding information about sounds and words in memory (phonological memory);
- Rapidly recalling the names of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet (rapid naming).
Consequences of dyslexia may include the following:
- Variable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension;
- Variable difficulty with aspects of written language;
- Limited vocabulary growth due to reduced reading experiences.